Skip to main content

Nursing: Writing & Citing

Connect directly to a wide variety of resources to support your clinical and research needs.

Writing & Citing

This page offers writing and citing assistance for after you've found the articles, books and other information on your topic.  

Recognizing Journal Articles

A cited reference to a journal article includes some key information that is not included in a citation for a book or any other type of material.  This information includes Volume, Number/Issue and Publication Date.  Here is a typical citation for a journal article:

Recognizing Books

A cited reference for a monograph--which is another way of saying a book on a single topic rather than a collection of essays--is generally the simplest citation you'll see and includes the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name and location, and the year of publication. It may also include page numbers that indicate the section of the book to which the citation is referring.  Here is a typical citation for a monograph:

Recognizing Book Chapters and Anthologized Essays

A cited reference for an essay published in an anthology or a book chapter includes much of the same information found in a reference for a monograph. However, there are a few key differences that will help you to identify this particular type of material, including more than one title (the title of the essay and the title of the book in which it was published), the name of the essay's author and often the name of the book's editor. Here is a typical citation for an essay published in an anthology:

Hanging Indents

At a loss for formatting that elusive hanging indent? Here's how to do it in MS Word:

  1. Get the citation information into a Word document (copy & paste or type it).
  2. Put your cursor at the beginning of the second line.
  3. Right click (or from the Page Layout menu) chose Paragraph > Indents and Spacing.
  4. Under Special choose Hanging.
  5. Click OK.

The Writing Center

The Writing Center provides one-on-one tutoring, workshops and presentations to strengthen your academic reading, writing, critical thinking and research skills.  

The Writing Center website also includes many helpful resources, including:

The Cite Button

The majority of the Library's e-resources can generate a single citation for you.

Places to look for the Cite Button or other Citation Tools in E-Resources:

  • The right-hand menu on the article abstract page.
  • At the top of the results list.
  • Immediately under each citation in the results list.
  • At the very bottom of an article or article abstract page.

Citing Lexicomp

According to the APA blog, use this format for mobile apps:

Rightsholder, A. A.. (year). Name of App (Version #) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from [itunes OR android market]

For example:
American Psychological Association. (2012). APA concise dictionary of psychology
(Version 1.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from

As for in-text citations, use this information from the full reference, and follow standard APA guidelines for the format.

Other Online Citation Tools

This is a selection of other citation generators & tools that can help you create citations and manage bibliographies.  Remember, though, that no online citation generator is 100% accurate.  Please be sure to check your citations to make sure that they're correct! 

Annotated Bibliographies from Purdue OWL

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

…includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources. Depending on your project or the assignment, your annotations may do one or more of the following:

  • Summarize: Some annotations merely summarize the source. What are the main arguments? What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? If someone asked what this article/book is about, what would you say? The length of your annotations will determine how detailed your summary is.

  • Assess: After summarizing a source, it may be helpful to evaluate it. Is it a useful source? How does it compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is the information reliable? Is this source biased or objective? What is the goal of this source?

  • Reflect: Once you've summarized and assessed a source, you need to ask how it fits into your research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape your argument? How can you use this source in your research project? Has it changed how you think about your topic?

Explore Purdue OWL's resources for more info

What is a Literature Review?

"Literature reviews are systematic syntheses of previous work around a particular topic. Nearly all scholars have written literature reviews at some point; such reviews are common requirements for class projects or as part of theses, are often the first section of empirical papers, and are sometimes written to summarize a field of study. Given the increasing amount of literature in many fields, reviews are critical in synthesizing scientific knowledge."

- Encyclopedia of Research Design


Go here for more on how to do a Literature Review.