Skip to main content

MPH@Simmons: Writing & Citing

Introduction to the library for MPH@Simmons students

Citing Your Sources: Chicago Author-Date Style

The Chicago Manual of Style offers two documentation styles: Author-Date and Notes and Bibliography.  

This page contains information about the Author-Date style, along with examples to guide you.  If you use additional resources, be sure to look for the Author-Date style (unless otherwise directed by your professor).

For more information on Chicago Style, check out the following websites:

Chicago Manual of Style Online

Purdue Online Writing Lab: Chicago Manual of Style

Formatting Your Citations

Your citations appear in two sections of your paper: 

In-Text/Parenthetical

In-text citations (also called parenthetical references) appear in the text of your paper, whenever you paraphrase or quote a source.

In-text citations appear in parentheses at the end of the sentence, before the period (or other punctuation mark).  

Reference List

The reference list appears at the end of your paper and should include all of the sources you cited in-text.  This page should be titled References.

References are listed alphabetically by the first word in each reference (usually the author's last name).

The reference list should be single-spaced, with one space between references.  Use the hanging indentation style.

Citing Books

In-Text

(Author's Last Name Year of Publication, Page Number*)

(Skloot 2010, 59)

Reference List

Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher.

Skloot, Rebecca. 2010. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown Publishers.

*Page numbers refer to the portion or passage you're citing, and they only appear in the in-text citation.  Do not include page numbers if you are citing an entire book or if page numbers are not included.

 

In-Text

(Author's Last Name Year of Publication, Page Numbers)

(Cassels 2015, 93-94)

Reference List

Chapter Author's Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. "Chapter Title." In Title of Book, edited by Editor's First Name Last name, Chapter Page Numbers. City of Publication: Publisher.

Cassels, Holly B. 2015. "Community Assessment." In Community/Public Health Nursing: Promoting the Health of Populations, edited by Mary A. Nies and Melanie McEwen, 91-104. St. Louis: Elsevier.

 

In-Text

(Editor's Last Name Year of Publication, Page Number)

(Haire-Joshu and McBride 2013, 121)

Reference List

Last Name, First Name, ed. Year of Publication. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher.

Haire-Joshu, Debra and McBride, Timothy D. 2013. Transdisciplinary Public Health: Research, Education, and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

In-Text

(Author's Last Name Year of Publication, Page Number*)

(Schneider 2017, 41-45)

Reference List

Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher. Format or URL.*

Schneider, Mary-Jane. 2017. Introduction to Public Health. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett. PDF e-book.

*If you access an e-book through a library or bookseller, use the format or edition (i.e. PDF e-book, Kindle edition, etc).  If the e-book is freely available online, use the URL.

Loading

Citing Articles

In-Text

(Author's Last Name Year of Publication, Page Number*)

(Resnick, Selig, and Riegelman 2017, 8)

Reference List

Author's Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume Number (Issue Number): Page Range of Article.

Resnick, Beth, Suzanne Selig, and Richard Riegelman. 2017. "An Examination of the Growing US Undergraduate Public Health Movement." Public Health Reviews 38 (1): 1-16.

*List the specific page number(s) you consulted in the in-text citation. List the page range for the whole article in the reference list.

In-Text

(Author's Last Name Year of Publication, Page Number*)

(Barr-Walker 2017, 69-71)

Reference List

Author's Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume Number (Issue Number): Page Range of Article. DOI, Database Name, or journal publisher's URL**.

Barr-Walker, Jill. 2017. "Evidence-Based Information Needs of Public Health Workers: A Systematized Review." Journal of the Medical Library Association 105 (1): 69-79.

*List the specific page number(s) you consulted in the in-text citation. List the page range for the whole article in the reference list.

**A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a permanent ID for digital sources.  If  DOI is listed in the article information, use the DOI.  If no DOI is listed anywhere in the article or record, use the database name and accession number instead. If neither of these is available, list the article URL.

"Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in the running text:

'As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010...'

and they are commonly omitted from a reference list.  The following examples show the the more formal versions of the citations."

Source: Chicago Manual of Style Online 

In-Text

(Author's First Name Last Name Year of Publication, Page Number*)

(Mukherjee 2016)

Reference List

Author's Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. "Article Title." Newspaper or Magazine Title, Month and Day of Publication. Page Range of Article. URL**.

Mukherjee, Siddhartha. 2016. "The Race for a Zika Vaccine." New Yorker, August 22. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/08/22/the-race-for-a-zika-vaccine

*List the specific page number(s) you consulted in the in-text citation. List the page range for the whole article in the reference list.  Leave page numbers out if the article does not use them.

**If you access the article online, include a URL.

Loading

The Writing Center

The Writing Center provides one-on-one tutoring, workshops and presentations to strengthen your academic reading, writing, critical thinking and research skills.  

The Writing Center website also includes many helpful resources, including:

Citing Online Sources

A Note About Online Sources

Online sources can be challenging to cite because they're often missing biographical information.

The first step is to determine what kind of online source you're dealing with. 

If it's a book or journal/newspaper/magazine article that you accessed online, cite them as that type of source.  See the "E-books," "E-journals" or "Newspapers & Magazines" tabs on this page for more information and examples.

You'll often find reports published online that don't fall into any of the above categories.  You may find these reports on a government agency, organization, or company's website.  See the "Online Reports" tab in this box to learn how to cite these reports.

Check out the Chicago Manual of Style Online for information on citing blog posts, emails, and other types of electronic sources.

If you're citing a webpage or website that doesn't fall into any other category, see the "Websites" tab in this box.

In-Text

(Author's Last Name* Year of Publication)

OR (Organization Name Year of Publication)

(American Public Health Association 2015)

Reference List

Author's Last Name*, First Name. Year of Publication. "Report Title." URL.

OR Organization Name. Year of Publication. "Report Title." URL.

American Public Health Association. 2015. "Healthy Outlook: Public Health Resources for Systems Transformation." https://www.apha.org/~/media/files/pdf/topics/aca/
tranformation/healthyoutlookcomplete.ashx

*If one or more authors' names are listed, include them in your references.  If no individual authors are named, use the agency, organization, or company name in place of the author's name.  See the "No Author" tab on this page for more information.

"A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text:

'As of July 19, 2008, the McDonald's Corporation listed on its website...'

If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the example below.

Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified.  In the absence of a date of publication, use the access date or last-modified date as the basis of the citation."

Source: Chicago Manual of Style Online

In-Text

(Author's Last Name Year of Publication)

OR (Organization Name Year of Publication)

(CDCP 2016)

Reference List

Author's Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. "Webpage Title." Last modified [date]. URL.

OR Organization Name. Year of Publication. "Webpage Title." Last modified [date]. URL.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016. "Health Equity - Minority Health." Last modified December 6, 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/index.html

Loading

Special Cases

Citing videos can be tricky because there are so many different categories of information that might apply in different cases.  The Chicago Manual suggests including any information that would help another person identify the video.  Video citations vary widely, but here is a basic format to begin with:

In-Text

(Author's Last Name, Year of Release)

Reference List

Author's Last Name, First Name. Release Date. Video Title. "Collection Name [if applicable]." Location of Distributor/Production Company: Name of Distributor/Production Company, medium/URL.

Schwarz, Michael. 2016. In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto. Arlington, VA: PBS Distribution, DVD.

The citation can vary, depending on how you accessed the video and what information you can find about its creation.  Here are two examples of different citations for the same work, accessed in three different places:

Palfreman, Jon. 2016. Sick Around the World, originally produced by PBS in 2008. San Francisco, CA: Kanopy Streaming, streaming video.  [If accessed via Simmons' Kanopy database]

Palfreman, Jon. 2008. Sick Around the World. A FRONTLINE co-production with Palfreman Film Group, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/sickaroundtheworld/.   [If accessed via the PBS website]

For a source with two or more authors, follow the order in which the names appear in the publication.  In the reference list, invert the first author's name (Last Name, First Name), but do not invert the following names.

Two Authors

(Browne and Rutherford 2017, 64-65)

Browne, Geoffrey, and Ian D. Rutherford. 2017. “The Case for 'Environment in All Policies': Lessons from the 'Health in All Policies' Approach in Public Health.” Environmental Health Perspectives 125 (2):149-54. doi:10.1289/EHP294.

Three Authors

(Resnick, Selig, and Riegelman 2017, 8)

Resnick, Beth, Suzanne Selig, and Richard Riegelman. 2017. "An Examination of the Growing US Undergraduate Public Health Movement." Public Health Reviews 38 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1186/s40985-016-0048-x.

Four or More Authors

(Gilles et al. 2017, 102-103)

Paradis, Gilles, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Maureen Malowany, Joseph Levy, Michel Rossignol, Pierre Bergeron, and Natalie Kishchuk. 2017. "The University-Public Health Partnership for Public Health Research Training in Quebec, Canada." American Journal of Public Health 107 (1): 100-04. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303529.

 

 

Organization as Author

Publications that are issued by an organization or corporation may not include an individual author's name.  In these cases, list the organization as the author.

You can use an abbreviation in the in-text citation and spell out the organization's name in the reference list.

Format:     (Organization Name or Abbreviation 2016)

Example:   (CDC 2016)

Anonymous Work

If you can't identify an author, editor, or sponsoring organization for a source, use a shortened version of the title in your in-text citation.

Format:     (Boston Health Statistics 1995)

Example:   (CDC 2016)

If a publication date is not specified, use "n.d." in place of the year of publication.

Format:     (Author's Last Name, n.d.)

Example:   (Bryant, n.d.)

Loading