If you are trying to cite a source that is not listed here, and you cannot find guidelines from APA elsewhere, you can create a generic reference. The Publication Manual lists certain elements that should be included in a generic reference:
Make sure to be familiar with what other APA citations look like and with the formatting rules.
Author. (Date). Title [Format]. Source.
Source: Publication Manual, 9.4
Personal communication can mean letters, memos, emails, interviews, telephone conversations, etc. that your readers will not be able to access. Since these items are not recoverable, it is not necessary to include in a reference list. Use parenthetical citations in the text only.
(D. J. Matthews, personal communication, July 10, 2009)
Source: Publication Manual, 8.9
For information retrieved from a mobile app (such as an iPhone or Android app), cite as follows:
Wiley. (2015). Psychology spotlight (Version 1.8) [Mobile app]. App Store. https://apps.apple.com/us/app/psychology-spotlight/id503789655
Source: Publication Manual, 10.10 (example 79)
Artist, A. A. (copyright year). Title of work [Medium: Painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Museum, Location. http://xxxxx
Da Vinci, L. (1506). Mona Lisa [Painting]. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France.
(Da Vinci, 1506)
Flack, A. (1988). Islandia, goddess of the healing waters [Sculpture]. Harn Museum of Art, Gainesville, FL, United States. http://www.harn.ufl.edu/collections/8_e.html
Source: Publication Manual 10.14 (example 97); Artwork References [APA Style]
Only include a full reference to lecture notes or class materials that are behind a login screen (such as Canvas) if you are writing for an audience that will be able to retrieve them. Otherwise, cite it as a personal communication.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides]. Website. http://xxxxx
Preskill, J. (n.d.). Chapter 4: Quantum entanglement [Lecture notes]. Caltech Particle Theory Group. http://www.theory.caltech.edu/people/preskill/ph229/notes/chap4.pdf
Matthews, D. (2019). [Lecture notes on evaluating Internet resources]. Canvas at Santa Fe College. https://courses.sfcollege.edu/login
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of ethics code. Publisher.http://xxxxx
American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/nursing-excellence/ethics/code-of-ethics-for-nurses/coe-view-only/
In-Text First time: (American Nurses Association, 2015); subsequent times: (ANA, 2015)
National Association of Social Workers. (2017). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English
In-Text First time: (National Association of Social Workers, 2017); subsequent times: (NASW, 2017)
Council on Social Work Education. (2015). Educational policy and accreditation standards for baccalaureate and master’s social work programs. https://www.cswe.org/getattachment/Accreditation/Standards-and-Policies/2015-EPAS/2015EPASandGlossary.pdf.aspx
In-Text First time: (Council on Social Work Education, 2015); subsequent times: (CSWE, 2015)
Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (example 55); Ethics Code References [APA Style]
How you cite your own work depends on what it is, and whether or not it has been published.
If you are citing a published work, you cite it as per normal for the work (e.g., photograph, book chapter, etc). For the citation (both in-text and in the reference list) you refer to yourself by name just as you would any other author. When discussing your work in-text, the general convention is to talk about yourself in the third person, but make it clear that it is your own work you are discussion:
But it may be appropriate to refer to yourself using first person pronouns, particularly if you are writing a reflective piece, so check with your professor.
If the work can be found or sourced online by the public, it is informally published and should be treated as a web page. If it cannot be found by the public and can only be accessed by people who have been given access to the private link or sent a copy in person, then it is an unpublished work.
Unpublished photographs and works of art created for the assignment (or appearing only in the assignment/paper and no where else) are not cited. Treat it as a figure, and add any necessary details in the Note section under the image.
Add "Own work" to the image if you feel it needs to be made clear that this is an image you created yourself.
Hong Kong before 2019/2020
Note. Photograph of Hong Kong taken in early 2000s. Own work.
If you are using your own image for an illustration in a PowerPoint presentation, you don't have to cite it, but you can put "Own work" on or under the image somewhere unobtrusive if you wish to avoid confusion.
When referring to your own artistic work in text, you need to make it clear that you are talking about your own work, but you do not cite it.
Assignments submitted for other coursework are regarded as unpublished manuscripts, and are cited as such.
Chukwu, J. (2021). Coming out of my cage and I've been doing not great: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on burnout and secondary trauma for social workers [Unpublished assignment submitted for SW 534]. Simmons University.
NOTE: Your past assignments are not usually considered scholarly sources. Another way to incorporate past ideas is to update your research and conclusions from the past assignment (and use new words to express your thoughts).
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Days of Conference). Title of poster session [Poster presentation]. Conference Name, location. http://xxxxx
Rusk, F. (2019, April 10–13). Beyond the research paper: Engaging faculty in alternative information literacy activities and assignments [Poster presentation]. Academic Colleges & Research Libraries, Cleveland, OH, United States.
Source: Publication Manual, 10.5 (example 62)
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis [Type, Institution]. Database/Archive Name. http://xxxxx
Chang, S. (2009). Relationship between active leisure and active vacations [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida]. University of Florida Digital Collections. http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024249/00001
Njuguna, S. W. (2002). Gender education and development: Women's quest for higher education in Kenya [Master's thesis, Morgan State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Saba, D. R. (1987). Segmenting the sports market: A benefit analysis [Unpublished Master's thesis]. Florida State University.
Cite conference proceedings based on the format they are published in. If published in a journal, cite as a journal article, if published as a book, cite as a book, etc.
Source: Conference Proceeding References [APA Style]
Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date). http://xxxxx
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973). https://www.oyez.org/cases/1971/70-18
(Roe v. Wade, 1973)
Source: Publication Manual, 11.4 (examples 1-7)
From the Code of Federal Regulations
Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. Page (Year). http://xxxxx
Exec. Order No. 13588, 3 C.F.R. 281–282 (2011). https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2012-title3-vol1/CFR-2012-title3-vol1-eo13588
(Exec. Order No. 13588, 2011)
Source: Publication Manual, 11.7 (example 21)
Name, A. A. (Year). Name of patent (Patent Identifier No. xxx). Patent Organization. http://xxxxx
Whitehorn, S. J., & Zehr, G. E. (2006). Electronic media reader (U.S. Patent No. D591,741 S). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/60/7a/8d/d1968eca804a80/USD591741.pdf
(Whitehorn & Zehr, 2006)
Source: Publication Manual, 11.8 (example 22)
Name of the Statute/Act, Title Number Source § Section number(s) (Year of Code Used). http://xxxx
Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. § 9401 (1988). https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/USCODE-2017-title42/USCODE-2017-title42-chap102-sec9401
(Mental Health Systems Act, 1988)
Florida Patient's Bill of Rights and Responsibilities, Fla. Stat. § 381.026 (1991 & rev. 2017). http://www.leg.state.fl.us/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&URL=0300-0399/0381/Sections/0381.026.html
(Florida Patient's Bill of Rights and Responsibilities, 1991/2017)
This statute was originally codified in 1991 and was last updated in 2017, so both dates are included.
Source: Publication Manual, 11.5 (examples 8-13)
If you wish to cite the U.S. Constitution as a whole, you may simply mention it in your paper without including a citation in the references list.
However, if you are citing a part of the Constitution, you should use the article, amendment, section, and/or clause numbers.
The founding fathers addressed the process by which new states may join the union (U.S. Const. art. I, § 3).
U.S. Const. art. I, § 3.
During prohibition, the sale of liquor was made illegal (U.S. Const. amend. XVIII, repealed 1933).
U.S. Const. amend. XVIII (repealed 1933).
Source: Publication Manual, 11.9 (examples 23-27)
U.N. Charter art. xx, para. xx.
U.N. Charter art. 1, para. 3.
(U.N. Charter art. 1, para. 3)
Source: Publication Manual, 11.9 (example 28)
A secondary source is a source that is cited in another source. APA strongly suggests that you always track down the original source to use and cite. However, if that is not possible, use the following guidelines.
In your references list, include the source you have in hand. In your in-text citation, use the name/date of the original source, plus the words as cited in and then the source you used.
For example, you are using an article by Akerstedt et al., and they cite information from a study by Wing et al.
Text found in Akerstedt et al: "This issue has not been addressed before, but weekend compensatory sleep seems to counteract obesity in children who have short sleep duration during weekdays (Wing, Li, Li, Zhang, & Kong, 2009)."
Akerstedt, T., Ghilotti, F., Grotta, A., Zhao, H., Adami, H.-O., Trolle-Lagerros, Y., & Bellocco, R. (2019). Sleep duration and mortality – Does weekend sleep matter? Journal of Sleep Research, 28(1), e12712. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12712
(Wing et al, 2009, as cited in Akerstedt et al., 2019)
Source: Publication Manual, 8.6; Secondary Sources [APA Style]