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Nursing: Write & Cite

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Why do citation rules have to be so rigid?


Title Page


Title pages for student papers include page numbers in the upper-left, bold-face title capitalizing all major words, student's name, affiliation (school and department), course code and course title, course instructor's name, due date (month, day, and year) Double-space the lines. You can use either serif or sans serif fonts. Running heads are no longer required for student papers in APA. You may be required to use different formatting, so follow your course instructor's requests (APA Publication Manual, 2020, Ch. 2).


1

Title of Paper

Student Name

School of Nursing, Simmons University

NURS 507: Scholarly Inquiry

Dr. Patricia Rissmiller

March 16, 2020


Source

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (7th ed.).



Reference Page


Prepare the references on a new page. Alphabetize by first word. Make a hanging indent for each reference. References are based on what you cite in your paper, therefore your paper will have some form of in-text citation matching it's reference.


10

References

American Heart Association [@American_Heart]. (2018, March 22). Depression could increase the risk of a serious heart rhythm condition called atrial fibrillation, new research shows [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/American_Heart/status/976949152843223040?s=20

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.1 (2019, December 9). Atrial fibrillation. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/atrial_fibrillation.htm

Cole, C. S., & Zimmerman, R. (2017). Anticoagulant options in atrial fibrillation: When new treatments become standard practice. Nurse Practitioner, 42(12), 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NPR.0000526766.99089.4e

Michaud, G. F. & Stevenson, W. G. (2018). Atrial fibrillation. In Jameson J., Fauci A. S., Kasper D. L., Hauser S. L., Longo D. L., Loscalzo J. (Eds.), Harrison's principles of internal medicine, (20th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

RegisteredNurseRN. (2015, June 26). How to interpret heart rhythms on EKG strips | How to tell the difference between a-fib & a-flutter [Video]. YouTube https://youtu.be/Ku4sqAKk5jI


Reference Examples



From the APA Publication Manual (2020, p. 316, 10.1 Periodicals)
Author Date Title Source
Periodical
information
DOI or URL
Author, A. A., &
Author, B. B.
Name of Group.
Author, C. C.
[username].
Username.
(2020).
(2020, January).
(2020, February, 16).
Title of article. Title of Periodical,
34(2), 5–14.
Title of Periodical, 2(1–2), Article 12.
Title of Periodical.
https://doi.org/xxxx
https://xxxx
Article with a DOI

Cole, C. S., & Zimmerman, R. (2017). Anticoagulant options in atrial fibrillation: When new treatments become standard practice.1 Nurse Practitioner, 42(12),2 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NPR.0000526766.99089.4e 3


Parenthetical citation: (Cole & Zimmerman, 2017)
Narrative citation: Cole & Zimmerman (2017)

1. Capitalize first word of title and subtitle. This is called sentence case.

2. Italicize journal title and volume number. Use title case, capitalizing major parts of speech.

3. "Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version" (APA publication manual, 2020, p.299).


From the APA Publication Manual (2020, p. 326, 10.3 Edited Book Chapters in Reference Works)
Chapter author Date Chapter title Source
Edited book information
information
DOI or URL
Author, A. A., &
Author, B. B.
Name of Group.
Author, C. C.
(2020).
(2020).
Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.),
Title of book, (pp. 3-13).
Publisher Name.
In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editors (Eds.),
Title of book, (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 212-255).
Publisher Name.
https://doi.org/xxxx
https://xxxx
Chapter in an Edited Book

Michaud, G. F. & Stevenson, W. G. (2018). Atrial fibrillation.1 In Jameson J., Fauci A. S., Kasper D. L., Hauser S. L., Longo D. L., Loscalzo J. (Eds.), Harrison's principles of internal medicine, (20th ed.).2 McGraw-Hill.


Parenthetical citation: (Michaud & Stevenson, 2018)
Narrative citation: Michaud & Stevenson (2018)

1. Cite the chapter authors and title first.

2. Use the preposition "In" for the editors and book title.


From the APA Publication Manual (2020, p. 342, 10.12 Audiovisual Works)
Author Date Title Source
Publisher URL
Director, D. D.
(Director).
Producer, P. P.
(Executive Producer).
Host, H. H. (Host).
Artist, A. A.
Uploader, U. U.
(2020).
(1989–present).
(2013–2019).
(2019, July 21).
Title of work
[Description].
Production
Company.
Label.
Museum Name,
Museum Location.
Department Name,
University Name.
https://xxxx

From the APA Publication Manual (2020, p. 342, 10.12 Audiovisual Works)
Author Date Title Source
Publisher URL
Writer, W. W. (Writer), &
Director, D. D. (Director).
Host, H. H. (Host).
Producer, P. P. (Producer)
Composer, C. C.
Artist, A. A.
(2020).
(2020, March 26).
Title of episode
(Season No.,
Episode No.)
[Description].
Title of song
[Description].
In P. P. Producer
(Executive Producer),
Title of TV series.
Production
Company.
In Title of podcast.
Production Company.
On Title of album.
Label.
https://xxxx
YouTube Video

RegisteredNurseRN.1 (2015, June 26). How to interpret heart rhythms on EKG strips | How to tell the difference between a-fib & a-flutter [Video].2 YouTube https://youtu.be/Ku4sqAKk5jI


Parenthetical citation: (RegisteredNurseRN, 2015)
Narrative citation: RegisteredNurseRN (2015)

1. Use the name of the up-loader as author in this case.

2. Use square brackets for description of media.


From the APA Publication Manual (2020, p. 348, 10.15 Social Media)
Author Date Title Source
Social media site name URL
Twitter and Instagram:
Author, A. A. [@username].
Name of Group [@username].
Facebook and others:
Author, A. A.
Name of Group.
Name of Group [Username].
Username.
(n.d.).
(2019, August 8).
Content of the post up to the first 20 words.
Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals].
[Description of audiovisuals].
Site Name. https://xxxx
Retrieved August 27, 2020 from https://xxxx
Tweet

American Heart Association [@American_Heart].1 (2018, March 22). Depression could increase the risk of a serious heart rhythm condition called atrial fibrillation, new research shows [Tweet].2 Twitter. https://twitter.com/American_Heart/status/976949152843223040?s=20


Parenthetical citation: (American Heart Association, 2018)
Narrative citation: American Heart Association (2015)

1. Use the name of author or group and username in square brackets.

2. Include the media description in square brackets.


From the APA Publication Manual (2020, p. 348, 10.15 Social Media)
Author Date Title Source
Website name URL
Author, A. A., &
Author, B. B.
Name of Group.
(2020).
(2020, August).
(2020, September 28).
(n.d.).
Title of work.
Site Name. https://xxxx
Retrieved December 22, 2020 from https://xxxx
Webpage with Group as Author

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.1 (2019, December 9). Atrial fibrillation. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/atrial_fibrillation.htm


Parenthetical citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019)
Narrative citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019)

1. When the author is the same as the site, omit the site name.


Source

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (7th ed.).



What's Missing


Sometimes reference elements are unknown or missing and the reference list entry must be adapted. See the table below for a summary of how reference elements are assembled and adjusted when information is missing (APA, 2020, p. 283).

From the APA Publication Manual (2020, p. 284, Table 9.1, 9.4 Four Elements of a Reference)
Missing element Solution Template
Reference list entry In-text citation
Nothing—all elements are present Provide the author, date, title, and source of the work. Author. (Date). Title.
    Source.
(Author, year)
Author (year)
Author Provide the title, date, and source. Title. (Date). Source. (Title, year)
Title (year)
Date Provide the author, write "n.d." for "no date," and then provide the title and source. Author. (n.d). Title.
    Source.
(Author, n.d.)
Author (n.d.)
Title Provide the author and date, describe the work in square brackets, and then provided the source. Author. (Date).
    [Description of work].
    Source.
(Author, year)
Author (year)
Author and date Provide the title, write "n.d." for "no date," and then provide the source. Title. (n.d.). Source. (Title, n.d.)
Title (n.d.)
Author and title Describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the date and source. [Description of work].
    (Date). Source.
([Description of work], year)
[Description of work] (year)
Date and title Provide the author, write "n.d." for "no date," describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the source. Author. (n.d.)
    [Description of work].
    Source.
(Author, n.d.)
Author (n.d.)
Author, date, and title Describe the work in square brackets, write "n.d." for "no date," and then provide the source. [Description of work].
    (n.d.). Source.
([Description of work], n.d.)
[Description of work] (n.d.)
Source Cite as a personal communication (see Section 8.9 [APA Publication Manual]) or find another work to cite (see Section 9.37). No reference list entry (C. C. Communicator, personal communication, month day, year)
C. C. Communicator (personal communication, month day, year)


Source

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (7th ed.).



In-Text Citations


Basic In-Text Citation Styles
From the APA Publication Manual (2020, p. 266, 8.17 Number of Authors to Include in In-Text Citations)
Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)
Two authors (Salas & D'Agostino, 2020) Salas & D'Agostino (2020)
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)
Group authors with abbreviation

First citation a

Subsequent citations

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)

(NIMH, 2020)

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)

NIMH (2020)

Group authors without abbreviation (Standford University, 2020) Standford University (2020)

a Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format. Thereafter, use the abbreviation for all mentions of the group in the text.


Citing Specific Parts of a Source

(APA, 2020, p. 264)

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, p. 10)

(Shimamura, 2017, Chapter 3)

(Armstrong, 2015, pp. 3–17)

(Shadid, 2020, paras. 2–3)

(Kovačič & Horvat, 2019, Table 1)

(Thompson, 2020, Slide 7)

(Beck Institute of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 2012, 1:30:40)


Source

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (7th ed.).



Sample Paper


From the APA Publication Manual (2020, pp. 61–67).


Sources

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (7th ed.).

American Psychological Association. (2020). Sample papers. APA style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/sample-papers



Tools & Tips


APA Information

Find great tips and advice from Owl and the APA website and blog


Cite Buttons

Look for embedded citation generators in databases

Cinahl cite button

CINAHL

Cinahl cite button

PubMed

Cochrane Cite Button

Cochrane Library


Citation Tools

Citation tools help you organize your and place your sources. Be careful to check for errors that citation generators can make.


Assignment Formats


Annotated Bibliography

Literature Review

Sources

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (7th ed.).

Card, N. A., & Card. (2010). Literature review. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design. Sage Publications.



Writing Help


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